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Identify Instructional Goals
There needs to be a clear description of what we want learners to learn with descriptive goals. This step is often coupled with a needs assessment
Conduct Instructional Analysis
The skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to achieve the instructional goals are broken down and the entry level skills and prerequisites are established.
Analyze Learners and Contexts
The learners' current levels of performance are evaluated, the environment where the learners will eventually need to apply their new skills is explored, and the learning environment itself is examined.
Write Performance Objectives
Specific learning objectives are written that include what exactly will be measured and under what conditions for each of the skills identified in the instructional analysis.
Develop Assessment Instruments
A method for evaluating performance for each of the performance objectives needs to be developed.
Develop Instructional Strategy
While emphasizing current learning theories (often nodding to Gagne), a strategy including pre-instructional activities, how the information will be presented, and opportunities for practice and feedback is developed.
Develop and Select Instructional Materials
Instructional materials that align with the learning goals and support the learners' performance are developed. This can be as simple as a collection of handouts or as complex as interactive multimedia.
Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction
Formative evaluation relates specifically to identifying how the instructional materials can be improved. Field testing materials and rapid prototyping can be applied.
All of the elements of the instructional design should be continually revised, including assumptions and analysis of the learners, and the context and goals for instruction.
Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation
The summative evaluation typically happens outside of the design process. It is essentially the determination as to if the final version of the instructional design is effective.